‘Live’ posting style, check the updates, for this is going to be quite a long post I’ll be writing along the day.
First some crops and drawings I made this morning, that I will be explaining and ordering later, in the images themselves you can see the hour for positions of stars in Stellarium snapshots, and some texts in other images. If anyone is in a hurry feel free to call me on the mobile phone (prefix for Spain, view my full profile), or my email address (will take longer because I check every so often, I am not constantly logged in, nor have just in time apps).
In this image you can see a wider view of what I see from my window, and also you see the horizon, which I don’t because there are some buildings blocking certain areas, so I’ll describe what is it that I see inside this wider perspective.
If you right-click and open the image in a separate window you’ll see it bigger than it appears here ([Ctrl] + [+] to zoom in, [Ctrl] + [-] to zoom out). That way you will see a label for a constellation: Draco. Right above Draco you can see Ursa Minor, but what I see is only (if it is) Polaris, which in this image appears on the leftmost of the group of stars that form Ursa Minor. And I cannot see the rest because there is a high building just where Draco is. Right above Ursa Minor in this image, is Ursa Major, which I could see oriented as it is in this image at that time.
Apart from Ursa Major, of which I can see almost all of the stars (because looking from a window lets you see the night-sky until your sight gets to the wall where you get your head out of the window to look), I can see Casiopea on the left of Draco and Cepheus, also in this orientation, more or less. And at that hour, can also see Mars, in this image at the top right corner behind the icons bar, almost hidden between the wrench, and the circles icons, almost touching the edge of my building wall and field of view.
Bootes, with Arcturus, are also blocked from my view, because of another building, so although they are above the horizon, keep below the buildings edges, and I should wait, half an hour or so, in this case, to see them.
The rest of the images are what Stellarium calculates for the different hours, which you can set by fastforwarding or rewinding with the buttons, on which by clicking you can increase the speed to get to a moment in time, which you can pause by clicking on the ‘play’ arrow like icon, that here appears as the ‘pause’ icon, because by clicking again motion stops in the program (the next button icon on its right sets the time to ‘now’).
As you can see the ‘N’, which stands for ‘North’, is below Polaris, in Ursa Minor, and also below Cepheus constellation.
The next two images are without the ground, the Sun and the grids: azimuthal, and equatorial are visible, if you take a look into the degrees numbers for the azimuthal grid on the right border, in orange, you will see the Sun is 25º more or less from the 0º that is the value for the horizon, so according to Stellarium, it should have risen one hour and twenty minutes later than the time in the image: 06:37:43 (UTC + 1), and that is 07:57, and in fact, it did rose at 07:57 a.m., well, at that time was when it started to rise, and I could check with my clock, and my eyes. And it kept rising until day arrived at 08:07 a.m. and clearly visible as day to anyone at 08:10.
[SEE IMPORTANT NOTE AT THE END OF THE POST]
National Observatory for Oviedo, Spain, says in its timetable (also on the widgets column) today sunrise should have been at 08:44 a.m. (in fact, in a mad fever to save resources for ASCII code characters, the put it like this: Ort 844).
So there is a slight difference of 34 minutes much bigger than the 8 minutes of anticipation for today according to lemniscata’s values (34 – 8 = 24, you take five minutes less from miscalculations, and still there is at least a difference of 14 minutes in advance (“Lo que diga la rubia” | “Do as the blonde one (me, who by the way, am dark haired…) says” 🙂 ).
In winter the sunrise takes 18 minutes since it starts, until it’s clearly day. The time here has been 13 minutes, but, that is because I made the observations with little means, so, let’s assume I missed five minutes and day started at 08:15. Wait until tomorrow and see (if visibility permits) what happens.
Tomorrow, being the 10th of December, day (here in North hemisphere), should arrive two minutes (or at least one minute LATER, according to the timetable) later than today. Check yourselves with your eyes, clocks, and means of measurement.
Next image is for the Lemniscata’s displacements.
The Lemniscata gives the differences between the average day (24 hours) mid-day, and the true mid-day. The vertical thick black line is the average time for mid-day, the black and white curve gives the values for declination between the Sun and the Earth axes, that is to say, the inclination angle, the difference respect the plane where the Earth is drawing its elliptical path from which a line is the orthonormal axis for the Sun’s rotation, and the other angle’s line is the Earth’s own axis of rotation, it must not be mistaken with the average measure for this angle considered constant ( that is why days are longer in summer than in winter), whereas it is not, nor with magnetic declination .
So in the left part of the tesselated image there are values for the angle variation all along the year (it is edited from web.romascuola, which you can visit to see the full curve for the complete year (search for Meridiana alla Chiesa di Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri post, to see a wider explanation I wrote on this Roman building, in Italian), and in the full image there are clock minutes values on the horizontal top border, being each little square equivalent to one clock minute.
Along the curve you have the names for the months (in Italian), each black, white, dash, is for one date, and going left you get to the inclination angle value, which gives the variation for true mid-day: the hour when the Sun appears highest in the day-sky every day (and casts the shortest shadows on objets blocking its light) when compared to the average mid-day.
If the area where a date along the year, is on the left of the vertical axis, minutes must be subtracted, if they are right of it, must be added to the mid-day time.
Fortunately today I could see a building shadow cast on another building at mid-day, and here is where controversy arises… unfortunately… 🙂
Given the fact that Oviedo is -5º 50′ and some arc seconds West of Spanish UTC meridiane of reference, and that now we are in winter time, in Castellón de la Plana, Valencia (next to Catalonia), mid-day is at UTC zero + one hour, for twelve o’clock, so -> 12 + 1 = 13 p.m. , but four clock minutes must be added for Oviedo’s longitude per each degree of difference with the zero degrees of longitude, so that is 4 per 1º or 1 per 15′, giving a value of 23 minutes (and some secs more) to be added to the 13:00 for the UTC + 1 winter time for mid-day, being then 13:23 the time when average mid-day happens here, in Oviedo. But, lemniscata’s values for December the 9th (which I drawn in an orange line in the image above, and also in a series of blue dots), a value of 8 minutes must be subtracted to the 13:23 time for average mid-day today, being this 13:23 – hh:08 -> 13:15 p.m. the time for true mid-day today.
And it was, the shadow was in line with what I think is Polaris (with +- one minute error for the measurement) at 13:14 p.m.
Anyway, I must (and all of you also) make more measurements, because this same value could have been rendered from other dates.
I’ll keep telling you in the next post of this ‘Time Shift’ series.
And the rest of this post I’ll leave it as it is here, and I’ll write about it in other series and moment.
As a brief explanation until the afternoon (because today I have to do some personal tasks), I’ll tell you this has to do with the energy amount into molecules, sort of a spinning top, which while rotating fast, has a disposition, and while losing energy and rotating slower, has another.
I’ll explain better and further later.
This last part on bencine, my table, and sp2 hybridization I’ll explain some other day.
‘… without the ground, the Sun and the grids: azimuthal, and equatorial are visible, if you take a look into the degrees numbers for the azimuthal grid on the right border, in orange, you will see the Sun is 25º more or less from the 0º that is the value for the horizon, so according to Stellarium, it should have risen one hour and twenty minutes later than the time in the image: 06:37:43 (UTC + 1), and that is 07:57’
I put it like this for the sake of clarity, indeed it is not exactly like that, but it is much more easy to understand the concept of rising astros like that, because of the grid’s disposition. Look at this edited yesterday’s image crop below, where I (who is not an astronomer [see grammar note afterwards 🙂 ]) put some lines, and read below the explanations.
The Sun’s sunrise was little less than two hours from orto, this is the time when its perimeter (more or less a circumference) touches the line of the horizon, and that is the time to start measuring dusk, which, at this latitude (distance from the Earth’s equator) yesterday’s date, December the 9th 2015, should have lasted 20 clock minutes at most, until day arrives, when stars are not visible at all until next night comes.
Think of it as taking either of the two blue lines I put in the crop (take on account it is not a fine-tuned drawing, as others I did, so distances are aproximate [in addition of me not being an astrophysicist).
As the distance in either of the two grids are near one another, I explained it whit the orthonormal grid, in orange, because it is much more easy to understand, only having to count the 10º lapse for every orange line ‘parallel’ to horizon’s line, which is that which joins N and E, in the image.
‘Who’ is a relative pronoun, it can be translated in Spanish as “que”, “quien”, “quienes”, and its Spanish translations can take or take not the Spanish tilde sign, depending this on the sentence type: if it is a question, the translation takes the tilde, if it is not, it doesn’t, so, in English, ‘who’ can be either for singular, or plural, and take the verb’s corresponding personal pronoun: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, in either of the forms depending on the voice (passive, active), the mode (indicative, subjunctive), or the sentence itself.
So, yesterday I put the little Spanish joke text: “Lo que diga la rubia”, translation to English, that would be: ‘Do as the blond one says’, and added this part between braces, being then: “Do as the blonde one (me, who by the way, am dark haired…) says”.
Well… it is not well written, according to English grammar rules, I should have written it like this: “Do as the blonde one (me, who by the way, is dark haired…) says”.
But I put it with the ‘am’ form for ‘to be’ present simple active indicative form, in order not to be mistaken with somebody else by not English advanced speakers.
So, I do apologize for the grammar misleading I should have spread on my readers minds…
Happy Christmas (again) !