# Logic Gates (II)

I hope you haven’t found the previous post confusing (apart from the nonsense links and wiki examples…), because this one is going to be a bit more thick.

I will tell you the structure of this post: first, I’ll start with the implications of implementing circuits with their complementary versions ( the NOT swapped ones), then I’ll tell you some implications of the previous hardware manufacturing in their software programming implementations, and I’ll end discussing the PLL integrated circuit (probably I’ll comment related issues in LEDs, nanotechnology, and chemistry in the next post, in order to make my readings more comfortable to read for the average Homo Asturiensis, oops! I mean, for the average dude…).

And as this is going to be a live post, I’ll publish and update every so often while writing it.

When we talk of electronic circuits, we take the source of energy, which enters the circuit in some point (the battery, or the generator, or the grid entrance), and flows through the circuit in the current circulation sense.

If we only have the source and a wire, it is clear that the current flows from the source through the wire until it reaches the output (or is consumed by the load) of the circuit. The flow of electricity through any medium has to overcome the medium resistivity (resistance to the flow pass), and this takes some of the flowing energy out of the circuit in heat, and magnetism energy forms.

It is a common practice to compare the flow of electricity, with the flow of water in a hydraulic piping circuit. I will explain first in proper terms, and then in a watery analogy.

So, the watery analogy for the previous source-wire only circuit would be a tap and a hose, but in the case of a hose, if it is not punctured, it does not lose water in the way all along its length from the tap to the hose end. To make it more electrical like analog you would have to think of a hose made of punctured material, such as a colander skinned hose (indeed I already wrote a series of posts last year entitled ‘Corriente Continua, Corriente Alterna’ explaining some of these concepts in Spanish).

Besides the colander like skin of the hose, you have to imagine it is packed with pebbles. All this makes water flow with less presure (because it is diminished while getting out of the hose through the colander skin), and more slowly (because it is bumping constantly with the pebbles all along the way).

This is what load loss and resistance mean, in electricity terms.

Now, supposse you put a bulb in the wire. You have to add energy to make the bulb’s filaments (or halogen, or LEDs) emit light. In this case the bulb (whose symbol is a circle with an x inside) consums the electricity, turning it into light (and heat and magnetism also). And this consumption is much higher than the one made by the wire, if and ONLY IF, the wire is very short, and thus the battery or generator is very near to the bulb’s location.

The watery analogy for a bulb would be a sprinkler.

And once this principles are stated in a simple way so that everyone who takes the time to read it will understand the concepts, I’ll start to explain the logic gates, but… (I’ll add a bit of dramatic tension here…), I’ll  start explaining this tomorrow.

(The day after…).

The source, the wire, and the bulb, match with a generator (or a battery), any medium through which electricity passes, be it solid, liquid, or gaseous, and the load in any circuit.

So if we add more electronic components (sprinklers, valves, mixers, expansion chambers and so on, in the case of hydraulic and pneumatic piped circuitery), we are adding more load (consuming more energy) and controlling the direction and sense of the flow through the wired (or wireless: pipes, fountain jets…) network.

In the case of wireless networks, you have to think of some watery analogy like this:

Imagine you have a sheet of paper into which you want to write some text, but instead of a paper sheet, you have a constant screen of water being jetted through a nozzle into the air in front of you. The watery jetted sheet is constantly provided by the wireless network signal generator, booster antennas, and signal coders, decoders, splitters, and amplificators. And it is functioning, constantly, providing the screen of water regardless of wheter you are writing on it or not.

Hard to visualize? Take a spoon, go to the kitchen, open the tap in the sink, put the spoon below the jet of water and see how a spoon rim according shaped sheet of water is generated. And if you want to play a little, move the spoon slightly and see how the water screen moves accordingly (this reminds my of a cat I had ages ago… she spent her time watching the jet of water every time I opened the tap and she was near to see it, it is strange you know? cats are suppossed not to like water…).

Meow? well, I mean… what was I saying?

Oh, yes, the wireless networks. They work like that: provide an electricity surface sheet of mutualy exclusive radio signals entertwined into which data are afterwards ‘written’, one radio signal thread for each bit required to be transmitted.

Remember: the longer the distance from source to load, the bigger the energy loss, through ANY media.

And now you can ‘visualize’ radio signal sheets, in a watery analogy form, I must make all of you notice:

### The ground does not prevent the flow of electrons from going further low, the electrons (forget the holes analisys on circuits, or if you know nothing on it, don’t lose your time learning it) keep going further down deep into the Earth’s magnetic center of magnetism: the planet Earth’s nucleus core, and add their energy to it, and that’s an enormous quantity of extra added energy, if you think of it in global terms.

And I think I have already added enough information for some hours, so I’ll go on writing and updating later.

(Later on…).

I am afraid I will have to divide the lenght of this post, because it is already longer than 1100 words, so go ahead to Logic Gates (III).

## Acerca de María Cristina Alonso Cuervo

I am a teacher of English who started to write this blog in May 2014. In the column on the right I included some useful links and widgets Italian is another section of my blog which I called 'Cornice Italiana'. There are various tags and categories you can pick from. I also paint, compose, and play music, I always liked science, nature, arts, language... and other subjects which you can come across while reading my posts. Best regards.
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