Silly facts three

Silly facts three !

Well… Watch these images, and I’ll give some more lecture review later.

In this image you can see the stations map for Antarctica. I made some anotations for you to see more clearly it’s different functions, you can choose various types of data. In this one you see sea’s temperature according to a code color, in this case the code color is wrong, because near Antarctica temperature is below zero for which there is no ccolor in the color scale, anyway you can see some values directly on the view.

Timetable for tides varies according to local times, I put a rectangle on the images to make you notice easily. Anyway, if you check in the webpage you will see local time there for the country you select, then you will have to make some calculation to pass it to your own local times.

Antarctica stations’ map.

This other view is stations for Greenland, in this case it is for waves’ heights.

Greenland stations’ map (Waves height).

Worldwide view of global events.

Worldwide events map

List of earthquakes this morning, as you can see they go on following Icelandic tides, and begin to move also according to Greenlander tides, I mean the higher than 4 in magnitude, and some in yellow to have on account too.

Worldwide events list

I will update this in the next post ‘Silly facts three (Update)’, where I will go on commenting on the Latour’s lecture.

And now… I will go on commenting this amusing lecture.

(17) Science eight.

Have you ever eaten a brownie? A brownie is sort of sponge cake with chocolate in its recipe, very common in English speakers’ countries. I am (almost) sure this man knows about brownies, but surprisingly he might never have heard about Brownian movement, phase diagrams, Gibbs degrees of liberty, binary (and more ingredients) alloys distillations, Boltzmann, enthalpy.. and some other thermodynamic concepts, so let me shed some light into this sort of… black bodies, obscure, and dark matter which has been being thrown into every physicist’s and chemist’s, among other techs’ minds.

In fact I didn’t want to get so technical, but I’m afraid I have to explain some basic ideas. So let’s start with brownies, oops… I mean Brownian movement.

Brownian movement is a type of vibrating movement which is responsible for our microwave ovens commercial and household commodity. It is a wavy one, responds to microwave waves, this is waves with a micron order of units lengthwave, thus being these microwaves highly energetic, they make bulk matter vibrate and this vibration becomes heat by making atoms and molecules of any magnetic sensitive material to bounce against one another, it is sort of shaking our hands against each other to make them feel a bit warmer than if they are still apart. Microns are much longer than nanos about a thousand times longer, they last less because of this, I mean, when we heat something in our microwave ovens it cools down faster than if we heat it by other means. This is because of Gibbs free energy, but I don’t want to get that technical, at least not in this post. I will talk instead of a much more easier to understand idea.

Phase diagrams. Matter can be in three types of physical states, being these solid, liquid and gaseous (fluids can be both liquid or gaseous). Each of these three states is called a phase, hence we have solid phase, liquid phase, and gas phase.

Phase diagrams are planar representations (designs on paper, keep it simple) of pressure and temperature, being the horizontal and vertical edges of the plane (paper). Any substance behaviour regarding phase changes, that is to say solid to liquid, liquid to solid, solid to gas, gas to solid, liquid to gas, gas to liquid, can be easily sketched over the paper as lines. Those lines are defining areas on the paper and every time you cross one of them it means the substance is experiencing a phase change. I’ll put one here.

phase diagram

The triple point is the point at which any substance has three phases coexisting, being this 4 degrees centigrade for water.

Gibbs degrees of liberty (maybe freedom) in a planar area like this for the triple point are zero, because if you vary pressure or temperature at that point you will have only two but not the three phases coexisting. If you have a substance in the temperature and pressure so that gives you a value on any of the lines (where two phases are coexisting), if you vary pressure or temperature, you will cross the line and you will have only one phase.

So the substance will not change phase (aggregation state) for as long as it is out of the lines in the paper, thus in any other area you have two degrees of liberty, meaning this you can vary pressure and temperature without the substance passing from solid to liquid to gas…

But this has somehow developed into an extrapolation into 3D volumes without varying the Gibbs degrees of freedom (liberty) accordingly. being this triple point stays zero, line becomes two, area x length -> volume becomes four.

And how is it that this has been developed so? I do not know, but it is so, and it is easy to see, prove, and demonstrate, though hard to believe.

Boltzmann constant is a value (I’m not to give because it is wrong) which comes directly from the development of Gibbs degrees of freedom so it’s value is clearly distorted (and distorting accordingly). It is better to calculate with little ‘n’ and leave Boltzmann totally out of equations. Recalculate it and you will see it is so.

Acerca de María Cristina Alonso Cuervo

I am a teacher of English who started to write this blog in May 2014. In the column on the right I included some useful links and widgets Italian is another section of my blog which I called 'Cornice Italiana'. There are various tags and categories you can pick from. I also paint, compose, and play music, I always liked science, nature, arts, language... and other subjects which you can come across while reading my posts. Best regards.