European Spatial Agency Swarm satellites project
European Spatial Agency Swarm satellites project.
Here you are some excerpts from the whole info you can read by clicking on the ‘link’ below.
‘…Common to these recent missions is the magnetometry package, which utilizes a vector field magnetometer co-mounted with a star tracker (2 in the case of CHAMP) on an optical bench. As the accuracy of the instrument package has constantly increased, as well as the modelling methods have been improved towards optimized signal decomposition, it has been realized that simultaneous data from several points in space is needed, if the ultimate modelling barrier, the spatial-temporal ambiguity, has to be broken.
The overall objective of the Swarm mission is to build on the Ørsted and CHAMP mission experiences and to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field (multi-point measurements) and its temporal evolution, to gain new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth’s interior and climate.
This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, two will fly at a lower altitude, measuring the East-West gradient of the magnetic field, and one satellite will fly at a higher altitude in a different local time sector. Other measurements will also be made to complement the magnetic field measurements. Together these multipoint measurements will allow the deduction of information on a series of solid-Earth processes responsible for the creation of the fields measured.
… Until 1820, the only magnetism known was that of iron magnets and of lodestones. It was the Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted, professor at the University of Copenhagen, who, in 1820, was first to discover the relationship between the hitherto separate fields of electricity and magnetism. Ørsted showed that a compass needle was deflected when an electric current passed through a wire, before Faraday had formulated the physical law that carries his name: the magnetic field produced is proportional to the intensity of the current. Magnetostatics is the study of static magnetic fields, i.e. fields which do not vary with time.
Magnetic and electric fields together form the two components of electromagnetism. Electromagnetic waves can move freely through space, and also through most materials at pretty much every frequency band (radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays). Electromagnetic fields therefore combine electric and magnetic force fields that may be natural (the Earth’s magnetic field) or man-made (low frequencies such as electric power transmission lines and cables, or higher frequencies such as radio waves (including cell phones) or television.‘
ESA Swarm satellites project link
The rest of this interesting article published by the ESA gives a lot of technical info which I will read (and maybe review later), because as I told you in some other posts, I love physics, science, maths, and nature, it all reminds me of my parents and siblings whom I have always loved, but first I would like to make you all aware of perhaps not so well known scientific facts to common and uncommon people whose decisions and directives affect all of us all over the world.
The Joule effect and Joule’s law are any of several different physical effects discovered or characterized by English physicist James Prescott Joule, including:
Magnetostriction, a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape when subjected to a magnetic field.
The Gough–Joule effect or the Gow–Joule effect, which is the tendency of elastomers to contract if heated while they are under tension.
There is a direct relationship between the way electric circuits and electrical wire and wireless networks work, and hydraulic and pneumatic pipelines. In addition to their similarities in their behaviour on their different types of elements such as valves, loads distributions, overloads, work pressures… there is an important scientific-technical fact:
Pressure drop. Pressure drop is defined as the difference in pressure between two points of a fluid carrying network. Pressure drop occurs when frictional forces, caused by the resistance to flow, act on a fluid, liquid, gas, or plasma, as it flows through the tube. The main determinants of resistance to fluid flow are fluid velocity through the pipe and fluid viscosity. Pressure drop increases proportional to the frictional shear forces within the piping network. A piping network containing a high relative roughness rating as well as many pipe fittings and joints, tube convergence, divergence, turns, surface roughness and other physical properties will affect the pressure drop. High flow velocities and / or high fluid viscosities result in a larger pressure drop across a section of pipe (all along its length), or a valve or elbow. Low velocity will result in lower or no pressure drop.
The same can be applied to any type of networks. The explanations on electric, electrical, radio, and electromagnetic networks generally speaking, are much less intuitive than with hydraulic circuits.
Efficiency in any engine is the difference between the energy it is applied in the input, and the energy (work) it is obtained at the output.
All this leads to a self-evident truth: the transportation of energy from the power plants, or water from the wells, rivers, lakes, levies, or any other water springs and reservoirs, implies an enormous quantity of load (and money) loss, that is wasting more or less 70% of the products while being transported, and there are also liquid and current leakage and escapes.
So, time has come to redesign supplying systems: Turn off the big ones, and start building, in a really eco-friendly way, tailor-made neighbourhood small power plants and water wells.
And desalinate seawater so that water can freeze again and stops being a paramagnetic ionic dissolution with all the pollutants | solutes humanity has been pouring on any kind of water streams that end up flowing in it, specially in Antarctica and the Arctic Ocean , and most of all those whose Curie’s temperature, like Fe2(Fe3)2MnO4 among others, occurs within slight variations from standard conditions temperature’s ranges.